Friday, March 20, 2020
A Management Plan For Skellig Michael Tourism Essay Essay Example A Management Plan For Skellig Michael Tourism Essay Essay A Management Plan For Skellig Michael Tourism Essay Essay . This is the chief aim of the Skellig Michael direction program. The program besides includes preservation, which is a cardinal facet, presentation, visitant direction, statute law, and development consideration. These are all necessary to the saving of the site for future coevalss ; the program is all based on the foundation of long-run vision for the site. The stray location of Skellig Michael has preserved it from devastation for many 100s of old ages. Skellig Michael is an highly powerful beginning of our individuality and it is described as a and an. It is one of the two World Heritage Sites that the democracy of Ireland has to its name and with this UNESCO enforces many regulations that are in topographic point to protect the cosmopolitan value of the site. Outstanding Universal value applies to the sites Its unity is paramount to its maintaining of this position. Skellig Michael falls under the classs of ( three ) and ( IV ) for universe heritage position. These are as follow s: Yet, nevertheless much Skellig Michael invokes a sense of admiration and awe its universe heritage position may come under menace due to the safety on site. . However, due to the steep landscape on which Skellig Michael is placed this is non possible. The direction program deals with the issue of safety for tourers sing the site. Due to two tourers being fatally injured whilst sing the site big leagues concerns have been raised about incidents of this nature go oning once more in the hereafter. There are six 100 stairss on the island to acquire up to the cloistered colony, all are uneven, slippy and each more danger so the following. Stability is a major issue yet the recommendation of building a bannister could impact the genuineness of the site and force UNESCO to retreat the sites World heritage position. This would intend at a National degree we would be down to merely one heritage site and this would be really detrimental to Skellig Michael itself. However, there are different attacks to this issue, such as foregrounding the safety in the mission statement, because at this minute in clip it seems to be a secondary idea on the docket. Looking at the stereotype of tourer sing the site and reding them decently of the hazard involved in it. The booklets provided by the site practicians are mediocre in the information that they provide on reding people of the menace of hurt. Many do non halt at the interpretative Centre in Port McGee and this is where the safety messages are given. It should be made compulsory for the tourers to see and have this information. A manner of enforcing this would be for the boats to sell their tickets to acquire to the island at the Centre. Another country of concern is the gap of entree to the south extremum. The topography here is highly unsafe even for experient climbers but the direction program outlines this concern and has put a rigorous monitoring government in topographic point to forestall any a ccidents from happening, whilst still protecting the natural wildlife on this portion of the island. The transporting capacity of the site is limited besides in Numberss. In the period between 1978 and 1994 visitant Numberss increased and with this so did the harm to the memorial. OPW were so forced to do an understanding with the boats work forces to restrict their carrying capacity to a upper limit of 180 tourers, this reduces harm and accordingly conserved the site at a higher criterion. each boat is given a license yearly saying the day of the months in which they can run trips to and from Skellig Michael and any visits made outside of the period is non permitted by OPW. This is bend is another safety safeguard taken on by the direction program so that no harm can be done to the memorial and besides that lives are nt put on the line due to the deficiency of ushers present on the island outside of gap day of the months and times. The entree to the site is merely by boat, this hinders the tourers as the conditions, and sea conditions are highly unpredictable during the season. The direction program has besides limited the Numberss of boats that it gives a license to cresting it at 15 upper limit. They have besides two sail ships that can run during the season, but there Numberss are capped at a hundred and they can merely see between six a.m. and eleven a.m. They have besides capped the transporting capacity lower to take in to account an private boat that is to see the memorial, even though this is non officially permitted. As we can see, the direction program has dealt with the issue of the transporting capacity of the memorial successfully and has liaison with several local organisations that would be closely linked to the site. Unlike many other memorials such as Stonehenge that has a immense carrying capacity, Skellig Michael is a vulnerable and delicate piece of our heritage which, if it was to transport more than 180 at a clip it would be destructive to its unity. Spare town walls are another built-in piece of Irish history yet they are endangered by the fact that they have a life modern town interacting around them. Problems such as graffito and even remotion of rocks can ensue in the loss of our walled heritage. For about three hundred old ages, the walls were forgotten approximately and abandoned amongst the abysm of nature. The town grew and so did the land degree destructing grounds of the wall. The From aerial shootings you can see the country where the wall existed and enclosed the town ; The direction program is created to, once more, protect to the site so that All the mission statements of Irish sites are really generic and include all the same ideals of preservation, publicity and sustainability for the hereafter. The direction program was good thought out with many meetings between the stakeholders and the populace, it include all sides of the spectrum. This helps to transfuse a sense of ownership into the locals and in bend may take to them holding a personal nexus to the site, which could reason in them protecting the memorial. The direction programs outlined many cardinal aims for which they realised that to be successful pro-active monitoring is necessary. A properly operation direction group needs to implicate the defined recommendations in the program ; this is the key to successful direction for any site. As we can see from Skellig, that the above statement is true. The ground that Trim has disintegrated to its present province is due to the fact that no enforcements where present earlier and unlike Skellig Michael it did non hold the luxury of World Heritage Status to protect or continue it, nor do any of the other heritage sites around Ireland. This is why it is so of import that we look at our landscape critically and measure what heritage we keep . With this regular monitoring Trim town walls could be successfully conserved and insurance could be made for their presence for the hereafter. The direction program will be tied into several other types of statute law to make with the town and council s o that every twenty-four hours things like the edifice of houses or substructure such as roads will non interfere with the site. The tourer facet besides came into the program, as there are no interpretative panels around the memorial. These are indispensable to the visitant experience and how the tourer will interact with the site because at present they come off with no instruction of the value of the importance that the walls have in our history. The program clearly states how this could be done successfully and what stuffs that should be used in the building of these panels. They besides suggest that an educational DVD should be shown at the interpretative Centre at the palace. Lough Gur, in County Limerick is another heritage site that is highly of import to our society and to future coevalss. Recommended for World Heritage Status due to it being a microcosm of history, it is a classical site that combines both natural and civilization in entirety. However, no reference is given to what standards Lough Gur falls under for World Heritage Status. In 2009, many professionals undertook a direction survey, yet this was its ruin as it is entirely based on recommendations with no interaction with local organisations, therefore trusting no public sentiment to the aims. Lough Gur is in private run by Shannon Development and with this, a figure of jobs have arisen. Shannon Development is more into charming and enigma for net income addition compared OPW s mission statement of protect and preserve . Shannon Development like any concern has long term aims to acquire the most out of its sites, such as Bunratty Castle. The direction program outlines Shannon Development for the hereafter of Lough Gur However, no reference is given to the fact Lough Gur it did non convey in adequate money so the interpretative Centre is being closed down. The lone recommendation that they do do is that Bouchiers Castle to be viewed in the visible radiation of a future heritage Centre. Yet would this non destruct the unity of the memorial? Another issue that needs to be addressed is the degree of reading, or the deficiency of it, available on site. No circuit ushers are provided, the interpretative panels are overgrown and upwind worn, andthe proviso of cusps is limited and most are merely in English or Irish. The site has many different memorials such as grange rock circle, Bouchiers Castle and Carraig Aille to call but a few. These are spread widely across the landscape and some are naked to the human oculus. These are all restrictions to the visitant s interaction with the site and their sense of apprehension. Access to the some of the sites is virtually impossible, as they are located on steep topography. Some kind of information should be given about the sites that some people may non be able to see, due to physical parturiencies. The program for Lough Gur is truly merely an enlightening survey about the site and its cultural importance yet many spreads are left to be filled. Without the nexus between top down gov ernmental administrations and the local people of the country the program will neer be implemented successfully. Internationally, heritage sites have more issues associated with them. For illustration, Henderson island, one of the Pitcairn Island in the cardinal South Pacific. Known for being an
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology The Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) is used to protect soldiers from chemical, biological, radioactive and other weapons and fallout. It is used with the Chemical Protective Mask for fully protect the body. JSLIST was developed by all four Defense services to provide a common protective suit. The suit includes the suit, overboots and gloves. JSLIST was developed to reduce heat build-up, allow for long wear, be washable and work with masks and other protective gear. The front of the suit opens and is designed to be worn over the soldiers uniform. JSLIST includes a hood, suspenders, high-waist pants and waist length jacket. Zippers have Velcro fastening covers to seal the zipper openings. The left sleeve has a pocket with flap for storage. The JSLIST suit liner has charcoal infused in the material to absorb chemical agents. The charcoal is high-tech activated carbon spheres making the suit lighter and less bulky. The fabric is designed to allow for movement of air and perspiration for added comfort. The overboots have buckles and go over the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s boots. They are designed to protect the feet from contamination as well as water, snow, oil, mud and they are even flame resistant. JSLIST weighs less than six pounds and is available in wood or desert camouflage patterns. In uncontaminated areas the suit can be worn for up to 120 days if not washed. It can be worn for up to 24 hours in contaminated areas. JSLIST costs about $250 each. It can be stored up to 10 years and can be washed up to 6 times. Over 1.5 million suits have been produced to date. JSLIST first entered service in 1997. JSLIST comes in 11 sizes. ManufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s Group Home Foundation in Belfast, ME Creative Apparel in Belfast, ME South Eastern Kentucky Rehabilitation Industries in Corbin, KY Peckham Vocational Industries in Lansing, MI
Sunday, February 16, 2020
The most common types of assault and battery a nurse can be criminally charged with - Research Paper Example The researcher opted for this research topic because it cuts across as unique when compared to most of the nursing research topics, which nursing students as well as other researchers usually study. This new study will bring fresh approach in studying about the nursing profession. Most commonly, researchers dwell on investigating about specific issues revolving nursing care. However, in respect to the increased cases of misconduct by nurses, it is of essence to carry out a study that will not only inform nurses of some of the acts that they do, which fit as assault and battery, but it will also seek to discourage such misconducts among nurses. From a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, this research topic is important since it will enable the student to understand the clear distinction between assault and battery. Secondly, the nursing student will be able to know what acts or deeds constitute to either assault or battery. Thirdly, the nursing student will be able to know what the law says about assault and battery by nurses and the possible liability that an offending nurse can get because of his or her misconduct. To the nursing profession this research topic will help to highlight on the issue of ethical practices within the nursing profession, that is, what acts fit as ethical practices within the nursing profession, and most importantly what acts fit as unethical nursing practices. Secondly, this research topic will be significant to the nursing profession because it will highlight on the issue of accountability enshrined in nursing care. Johnstone (2009) notes that in the nursing profession, the practicing nurses have to be accountable to themselves, their patients, their employer (healthcare organization), the surrounding environment, which also includes the society and the nursing profession. In this regard, Johnstone (2010) stated that for every action that a
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Ethical Problems In Statistics - Essay Example As users of statistical data, we ought to be on the lookout for falsehoods in statistical reports. We should look for the conscious or unconscious influence that has a tendency to distort the numbers and information. Figures may be filtered for controlling factors and thereby leading to the production of curious results. We should be aware of and look for indicators of an influenced sample. These include small samples size and biased samples. Users should try to figure out if any information is missing. The absence of supporting information that directly relates to the source is enough to suspect unreliability. It comes in the form of a correlation that does not present measures of reliability like probable error and standard deviation. Also, it can be in the form of a mentioned percentage that is not backed by its numeric base materials. We should look for the possible trends present in the totals or conclusions. These trends will usually tend to give information of one case in comp arison another whereas the cases may be not similar. For all claims made based on unproven assumption, the user should always analyze whether they make sense. Though the current trends may be established using facts, the future trends can only predict successfully using a reasonable hypothesis. Another issue of ethics is, genuine data though full virtues can be manipulated, exaggerated, and oversimplified by experts and accepted by people. This compounded by the fact that people have a tendency to trust experts.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Development Of Modern Capitalism History Essay Weber viewed that the protestant ethic spawned encouraged the spirit of capitalism. He was it more than simply a capitalistic activity. According to him it was the essence which underlies the economic system. During the sixteenth century, this spirit embodied in the societies of the Europe provided the impetus for capitalism to emerge as the dominant economic system of the world. He saw capitalism more than simply an accumulation of wealth. It had its roots in rationality. He insisted that the capitalism was the triumph of rationality over tradition .Explicit in his views of capitalism was a disciplined labour force and the regularized investment of capital. He asserted that this combination took place only in Europe most strongly in protestant nations such as England, Holland Germany To specify the distinctive characteristics of modern capitalism in the protestant ethic, weber first of all separation off capitalistic enterprise from the pursuit of gain such as.The desire for wealth has existed desire in most times nations in itself nothing to do with capitalistic action, which involves a regular orientation to the achievement of profit through economic exchange. Capitalism thus defined in the mercantilist operations for instance has existed in various forms of society; in Babylon Ancient Egypt, China, India Europe. But only in the west capitalistic activity become associated with the rational organisation of formally free labour. By rational organisation of free labour means its routinized calculated administration with in continuously functioning enterprises. A rationalised capitalistic enterprise implies two things-a disciplined labour force the regulated investment of capital. Each contrasts profoundly with traditional types of economic activity. It is associated with an outlook of very specific kind-the continual accumulation of wealth for its own sake, rather than for the material rewards than it can serve to bring. Man is dominated by the making of money, by acquisition as the ultimate purpose of his life. Economic acquisition is no longer subordinate to man as the means of stratification of his material needs. This according to weber was the essence of the spirit of modern capitalism. The notion of calling accords to weber did not existed either in Antiquity or in Catholic theology; it was introduced by the Reformation. It refers basically to the idea that the highest form of moral obligation of the individual is to fulfil his duty in worldly affairs. This project religious behaviour into the day-day world stands in contrast to the catholic ideal of the monastic life, whose object is to transcend the demands of mundane existence.Moreover,the moral responsibility of the Protestant was cumulative i.e. the cycle of sin, repentance forgiveness, renewed throughout the life of the Catholicism was absent in Protestantism. The idea of calling was already present in Luthers doctrine but it became more rigorously developed in the various sects; Calvinism, Methodism, Pietism and Baptism .The weber was mostly concentrated on the Calvinism. Calvinism was the faith over which the great political cultural struggles of the sixteenth seventeenth centuries were fought in the most highly developed countries, the Netherland, England France. The four tenets of Calvinism were (a) God is all powerful and transcendent. One can never reach or understand God. (b)Doctrine of pre-destination: God has already preselected who will be saved and who shall be condemned. (c)Disworldly Asceticism: Do worldly things but in a balanced manner. Accumulated wealth but not to spend luxuriously. In fact re-invest. (d)The notion of calling: that all people have a calling. And to pursue this calling means doing God will. It views grace as irresistible, has a rigid doctrine of predestination, and originally had a theocratic view of the state. Calvinist doctrines look on Gods will as sovereign, and church should not be subject to the state (although it did not frown on a church dominated society). The doctrine of predestination was of utmost important, stressing the absolute sovereignty of Gods will, held that only those whom God specifically elects are saved, that this election is irresistible, and that man can do nothing to effect this salvation. Weber noted that Calvins interest was solely in God, and people existed only for the sake of God. Only a few are chosen and the rest are damned. Human merit or guilt plays no role in whether or not one is elect. This doctrine produced unprecedented inner loneliness of the single individual. (Protestant, p. 104). The individual Calvinists connection with God was carried on in deep spiritual isolation. (Protestant, p. 107) e.g. Pilgrim in Pilgrims Progress. Weber viewed this as pessimistically disillusioned type of individualism rather than the spirit of enlightenment. No one could save the individual, no priest, not the Church, no sacraments. This, the complete elimination of salvation through the Church and the sacraments was what formed the absolutely decisive difference from Catholicism. (Protestant, p. 105). Weber regards this as the logical conclusion of the elimination of magic, that is, a rational development in religion. For Calvin, people are on earth only to glorify God. The duty of the Christian was to show Gods glory in a calling. This meant doing ones daily tasks, and this often means fulfilling the job in a rational organization. The elected Christian is in the world only to increase this glory of God by fulfilling His commandments to the best of his ability. Brotherly love is expressed in the first place in the fulfilment of the daily tasks given. This makes labour in the service of impersonal social usefulness appear to promote the glory of God and hence to be willed by him. (Protestant, pp. 108-9). The Calvinist Christian was concerned with the question of whether he or she was one of the elect. Since this caused suffering on the part of the individual, two forms of pastoral advice were given. See quote 12 on predestination. First, it was an absolute duty to consider oneself chosen, and to combat all doubts as temptations of the devil, since lack of self-confidence is the result of insufficient faith, hence of imperfect grace. a duty to attain certainty of ones own election and justification in the daily struggle of life. (Protestant, p. 111). Second, in order to attain that self-confidence intense worldly activity is recommended as the most suitable means. It and it alone disperses religious doubts and gives the certainty of grace. (Protestant, p. 112). This contrasts with Lutheranism, whereby God promises grace to those who trust in God. Faith was thus identified with the type of Christian conduct which glorifies God. Works were not a means of purchasing salvation, but of getting rid of the fear of damnation. In practice this means that God helps those who help themselves. (Protestant, p. 115). But this is not done through occasional good works, or a gradual accumulation of points toward salvation, but rather in a systematic self-control which at every moment stands before the inexorable alternative, chosen or damned. (Protestant, p. 115). This means that the Christian must have a life of good works; there is no room for the very human Catholic cycle of sin, repentance, atonement, release. Of the elements in Calvinism that which seeks special attention was the doctrine of predestination-that only some human beings are chosen to be saved from damnation, the choice being predetermined by god. In its extreme inhumanity, he comments this doctrine must above all have had one consequence for the life of a generation which surrendered to its magnificent consistencyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦a feeling of unprecedent loneliness. From this torment, weber holds that the capitalistic spirit was born .He talked about the two developments at the pastoral level-it became obligatory to regard oneself as chosen, lack of certainty being indicative of insufficient faith; the performance of good works in worldly activity became accepted as the medium whereby such surety could be demonstrated. Success in a calling eventually came to be regarded as a sign never a means of being one of the elect. The accumulation of wealth was morally sanctioned in so far as it was combined with a sober, industrious career; wealth was condemned only if employed to support a life of idle luxury or self-indulgence. Calvinism supplied the moral energy drive of the capitalistic entrepreneur.weber speaks of its doctrine as having an iron consistency in the bleak discipline which it demands of its adherent. The elements of ascetic self-control in worldly affairs was certainly there in the other puritan sects but they lack the dynamism of calvanism.Their impact was mainly upon the formation of moral outlook enhancing labour discipline with n the lower middle levels of capitalistic economic organisation. Such as the virtues favoured by pietism were those of the faithful official, clerk, labourer or domestic worker. The protestant ethic acc. To weber traces only one side of the casual chain i.e.-the connection of the spirit of modern economic life with the rational ethics of ascetic puritanism. He specifies a number of fundamental socio-economic factors institutional bases which played major role distinguished the European experience that of India china. These included (a)The separation of productive enterprise from the household which, prior to the development of industrial capitalism was much more advanced in the west (b) the development of the Western city, with a trading structure independent of the surrounding rural areas(c) Western law, including the separation of corporate and personal property; (iv) the nation state, with a bureaucracy that could take care of necessary state activities; an organized territory under unified control of a single ruler or government, so that there was a unified framework within which commerce and capitalism could develop; (v) double entry book-keeping, al lowing business to keep track of all items and determine a balance; allowing rational calculation of all the inflows and outflows, leading to an analysis of where the profit or loss occurs, and what is the source of profit; (vi) the rational capitalistic organization of (formally) free labour. A lot of critique has been laid on the webers work said that webers characterisation of Protestantism was faulty. The major critique directed to webers treatment of the reformation, his interpretation of the puritan sects in general the Calvinism particularly. (a)It has been held that weber mistakenly supposed that Luther introduced the concept of calling which differ from anything previously available in scriptural exegesis; that Calvinistic ethics were anti-capitalistic rather than sanctioning the accumulation of wealth (b) Weber misinterpreted catholic doctrine. Critics have pointed out that weber apparently did not study Catholicism in any detail, although he talked about the difference between the Catholicism Protestantism in respect of economically relevant values. It has been held that post-medieval Catholicism involves elements positively favourable to the capitalist spirit that the Reformation was seen as a reaction against the latter rather than as a clearing ground fo r its subsequent emergence (c) The connectivity between puritanism modern capitalism was based upon unsatisfactory empirical materials. Fischer Rachfahl has echoed about this in several forms.Weber only study the numerical analysis of the economic studies of Catholics Protestants in baden,1895.They argued that webers source was mainly Anglo-Saxon claimed that research into economic development in the Rhineland, the Netherland Switzerland, in the sixteenth seventeenth centuries didnt reveal any close association between Calvinism capitalistic enterprise. One of the criticisms of Weber is that he misunderstood what Franklin was saying. In their article, In Search of the Spirit of Capitalism: Webers Misinterpretation of Franklin, Tony Dickson and Hugh McLachlan disagree with Weber that Franklin was talking about an ethic in the selection quoted above. Far from demonstrating a commitment to the spirit of capitalism and the accumulation of wealth as an end in itself and moral duty, Franklins writings is in fact evidence against the existence of such a spirit. Dickson and McLachlan point out that the title of the work from which Weber quoted is Necessary Hints to Those That Would Be Rich. They assert, This suggests that what Franklin is offering is prudential advice, rather than insisting on a moral imperative. The gist of Dicksons and McLachlans argument is that Weber misinterpreted Franklins writings as moral ends when they were simply virtues to be practiced because of the benefits they will bring to those who practice them. They deny that Franklin was preaching a Protestant work ethic and assert that all Franklin was saying was that if a person is interested in being successful in life and commerce, here are some virtues to follow. Dickson and McLachlan conclude with a clear statement of their criticism of Webers hypothesis: It seems clear that Weber misinterpreted Franklin and that the latter was not imbued with the ethos which Weber attributes to him. It is not in dispute that a methodological lifestyle is conducive to the accumulation of wealth. What is at issue concerning Webers Protestant Ethic thesis is the impetus for such a lifestyle. Webers misinterpretation of Franklin does not in itself invalidate his methodology or his Protestant Ethic thesis. Nonetheless, it does suggest a rather cavalier attitude towards evidence, particularly as the writings of Franklin are the only evidence that he presents in his original essays to demonstrate the existence of the spirit of capitalism. H. M. Robertson, in A Criticism of Max Weber and His School asserted that the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches stressed the same precepts in the 16th and 17th centuries. He states that Webers assertion that the concept of the calling was novel to Luther and Protestantism was not established in Webers writings. He supported his thesis by quoting Aquinas: There seems to be no essential difference between the doctrine of the Catholics and the Puritans on the point of the calling. Amintore Fanfani, an economic historian, shared Robertson criticism of Weber but from a different aspect. In his article Catholicism, Protestantism, and Capitalism, Fanfani disagrees with Weber concerning the role that Protestantism played in the development of a capitalist spirit in Europe. In the first paragraph, he states his argument: . . . that Europe was acquainted with capitalism before the Protestant revolt. For at least century capitalism had been an ever growing collective force. Not only isolated individuals, but whole social groups, inspired with the new spirit, struggled with a society that was not yet permeated with it. Once we have ruled out that Protestantism could have produced a phenomenon that already existed, it still remains for us to enquire whether capitalism was encouraged or opposed by Protestantism. Fanfani argued that it was not the Protestant Ethic which encouraged the growth of capitalism but the fact was that many Protestants were forced to leave Catholic countries to escape persecution which fosters in the emigrants an internationalism that is no small element in capitalist mentality. He further says that many early Protestant leaders opposed capitalism, including Luther and Calvin: Luthers conservatism in economic matters, to which his patriarchal ideas on trade and his decided aversion to interest bear witness. Even Calvin . . . condemns as unlawful all gain obtained at a neighbours expense, and the amassing of wealth. The Huguenots and Dutch Reformers also preached against various aspects of capitalism: . . . through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a continual repetition of the prohibitions of usury were issued by the synods of the Huguenots and by those of the Dutch Reformers, whose ethical code also condemned even excessive labour, as robbing time and energy fr om the service of God, and held action born of desire for gain to be a sign of madness. Fanfani agrees with Weber that capitalism flourished after the Reformation, but he parts ways with Weber as to the causes. Fanfani argues that capitalism as we know it today was born in the Italian merchant states under the religious umbrella of Catholicism, but he discounts the effect that religion of any kind had on the growth of capitalism as the major world economic system. He concludes his article by stating, The creation of a new mentality in the economic field cannot therefore be considered as the work of Protestantism, or rather of any one religion, but it is a manifestation of that general revolution of thought that characterizes the period of the Renaissance and the Reformation, by which in art, philosophy, morals, and economy, the individual emancipates . . . himself from the bonds imposed on him during the Middle Ages. Malcolm H. MacKinnon, bases his disagreements with Weber on the idea that Weber misinterpreted what the Calvinists were saying about the concept of the calling and good works. He states early on in his article, There are two fundamental theological flaws in Webers line of reasoning, flaws that mean that Calvinism did not give a divine stamp of approval to earthly toil: (1) There is no crisis of proof in the Westminster Confession of Faith, the dogmatic culmination of seventeenth-century Calvinism upon which Weber so heavily relies, and (2) in Christianity generally and Calvinism in particular, works have nothing to do with mundane activities. As soteriologically conceived in relation to salvation, works are spiritual activities that call for obedience to the Law. MacKinnon goes on to explain that Webers major failure is his misunderstanding of the Calvinist meaning of the calling. Using the Westminster Confession as his primary source, MacKinnon explains what the term calling meant to the Calvinists: There is a heavenly calling and an earthly calling or callings, the latter disqualified from making a positive contribution to our deliver ance. . . Above all else, the devout must ensure that their mundane callings in no way impede the prosecution of the greatest good of all: their heavenly calling. Believers are sanctioned to choose that employment or calling in which you may be most serviceable to God. Choose not that in which you may be most honorable in the world; but that which you may do most good and best escape sinning. MacKinnon concludes by stating that it was Webers misfortune to choose part of the Calvinist philosophy which, upon close examination, not only fails to support Webers thesis but in fact undermines it. Again, the significant point here is that temporal obligations are at best indifferent and at worst sinful; they cannot make a contribution to the realization of celestial paradise. It is a grim twist of irony that Weber would choose such a spiritually worthless vehicle to realize his causal ambitions. R. H. Tawney, Webers most famous critic, agreed with Weber that capitalism and Protestantism were connected. However, Tawney saw the connection going in the opposite direction from that which Weber postulated. Tawney, in his 1926 work, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, states that Protestantism adopted the risk-taking, profit-making ethic of capitalism, not the other way around. Tawney claims, with some good measure: There was plenty of capitalist spirit in fifteenth century Venice and Florence, or in south Germany and Flanders, for the simple reason that these areas were the greatest commercial and financial centers of the age. The development of capitalism in Holland and England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were due, not to the fact that they were Protestant powers but to large economic movements, in particular the Discoveries and the results which flowed from them. The strongest connection that Tawney saw between capitalism and Protestantism was rationality. Protestantism was a revolt against traditionalism and as such advocated rationality as an approach to life and business. Tawney proposed that the rationality inherent in capitalism became a tenet of Protestantism because rationality was diametrically opposed to the traditionalism of Catholicism. Early Protestant leaders recognized that hard work and rational organization of time were capitalist virtues which fit very nicely into the concept of living ones life in the service of God. Tawney saw the capitalist concepts of division of labor and planned accumulation as being reflected in the dogma of Protestantism which urged its followers to use ones calling on earth for the greater glory of God. According to Tawney, capitalist precepts and Protestant dogma fit hand in glove. As an historian, Tawney did not see a linear relationship between capitalism and Protestantism. He thought that Webers thesis a little too simplistic to explain historical events. History tends to be non-linear, and attempts to draw straight casual lines between events are shaky at best. As Tawney put it, The Protestant ethic, with its insistence on hard work, thrift, etc., had contributed to the rise of capitalism, but at the same time Protestantism itself was being influenced by an increasingly capitalistic society. The last critic I will cite in this paper is an economic historian, Jacob Viner, who used pre-eighteenth century Scotland as a case study to demonstrate that where Calvinism was a state religion, it tended to have a restraining rather than a freeing effect on economic development. He quotes a letter from John Keats in support of his thesis: . . . the ecclesiastical supervision of the life of the individual, which, as it was practised in the Calvinistic State Churches almost amounted to an inquisition, might even retard that liberation of individual powers which was conditioned by the rational ascetic pursuit of salvation, and in some cases actually did so. Viner points out that until well into the eighteenth century, Scotland was a desperately poor country. Contemporary commentators often remarked on the lack of economic initiative and ambition and on the general lack of enterprise and economic discipline of the population. Several of these reporters attributed Scotlands economic backwardness in large part to the deadening effect of Calvinist doctrine as forcibly applied by both Church and State. Viner quotes Henry T. Buckle who, in his 1857 treatise Introduction to the History of Civilization in England, wrote concerning the economic teachings of Scottish Calvinists in the seventeenth century as follows: To wish for more than was necessary to keep oneself alive was a sin as well as a folly and was a violation of the subjection we owe to God. That it was contrary to His desire was moreover evident from the fact that He bestowed wealth liberally upon misers and covetous men; a remarkable circumstance, which, in the opinion of Scotch divines, proved that He was no lover of riches, otherwise He would not give them to such base and sordid persons. To be poor, dirty, and hungry, to pass through life in misery, and to leave it with fear, to be plagued with boils, and sores, and diseases of every kind, to be always sighing and groaning, . . . in a word [sic], to suffer constant affliction, and to be tormented in all possible ways; to undergo these things was deemed proof of good ness, just as the contrary was a proof of evil. The opposition of Scottish Calvinism to capitalism was so well known in Europe that some English commentators such as Roger LEstrange urged English businessmen to look at the record of the Scottish Presbyterians in interfering with commerce and industry for religious reasons before supporting Cromwells cause. In conclusion, the critics of Webers Protestantism/capitalism theory have reasonable and logical criticisms. As a historian, I find the Tawney non-linear argument to be very compelling. There is no doubt that capitalism in various forms existed in Europe prior to the Reformation. The Italian merchants and the Dutch clothiers operated under a rational economic system. Double-entry bookkeeping was invented in Italy and adopted by other merchants throughout Europe. I think it is obvious that several factors were at work in Europe during the long sixteenth century, which led to the growth and dominance of capitalism. All of this taken into consideration, Webers thesis still stands. His thesis is not perfect; it has all the flaws pointed out by the above critics. However, none of the critics I have read managed to destroy the basic premise by which Weber sought to explain the growth of capitalism. Something happened in the long sixteenth century which saw an explosion of capitalist economic activity, free thought, and religious rebellion. Whether the relationship among these is causal or coincidental will be grounds for conjecture for years to come. History shows us that in fact those nations which were predominantly Protestant showed economic growth much greater than those which were predominantly Catholic. Even Jacob Viners argument that the repressive nature of Scottish Calvinism does not damage Weber, since he acknowledged that once a religion becomes a creature of the state it then tends to oppress people rather than free them.
Friday, January 17, 2020
For as long as I can remember literature has always played an important role in my life. As a young child, I can remember how excited IÃ¢â¬â¢d be at story time each night before bed. My interest in literature carried on throughout my school yearsÃ¢â¬ ¦ from kindergartenÃ¢â¬ ¦ when I was placed in the red bird group, which was the group of strongest readersÃ¢â¬ ¦. to high schoolÃ¢â¬ ¦when I had the benefit of being taught by one of the best English teachers ever, Ms. Irena King. Now as an adult and professional, I am very appreciative of the literary foundation that was laid for me by my family and my teachers. I understand how important literacy is in everyday life. First, as a young child, literacy played a very important role in my life even before I could read. I was always fond of books of all kinds. Coloring books, magazines, and picture booksÃ¢â¬ ¦I loved them all. I remember each trip to the grocery store; I would always get a new Ã¢â¬Å"Little Golden BookÃ¢â¬ . I absolutely had to have the entire collection and would want them read to me each night before bed. My favorite of this collection was Ã¢â¬Å"The Gingerbread ManÃ¢â¬ . I would sit for hours and look at the pictures. My mother would often encourage me to keep an interest in books. She always kept a subscription of Ã¢â¬Å"Highlights MagazineÃ¢â¬ for me and I would watch the mail each day in hopes that a new issue had arrived. As I grew older, my love for books did not change, but the type of books I wanted did. I had the largest collection of Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet Valley HighÃ¢â¬ books and was a faithful subscriber to Ã¢â¬Å"Fresh MagazineÃ¢â¬ . I think that these are some of my fondest memories from my childhood, and I am so appreciative of my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s support of my passion for reading. Next, my interest for literature carried on from my early years to my school years. This was very evident when I started kindergarten. I vividly remember there were different groups within our kindergarten class.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Use of Calcium Channel Blockers and ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease19 The Pasternak et al publication was a Danish study that investigated the correlation between PD and CCB use via a retrospective cohort study using the Danish Civil Registration System, with an Oxford 2b level of evidence. The primary goal of this study was to determine if the incidence rate of PD in new users of DHPs differed significantly from those non-users, when studying the Danish population Ã¢â° ¥45 years of age between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2006. Researchers also hoped to evaluate PD rates among specific DHPs, non-DHP CCBs, as well as rates of dementia and death among patients on CCBs. Patients were excluded from the study if they had used a CCB within 2 years prior to the study, or had pre-existing PD or PD-related dementia at the study onset. Patients use of CCBs was stratified as: use (filling at least two consecutive prescriptions), past use, or 1 time use. PD diagnosis during the study was defined as those individuals who had at least one hospital diagnosti c code for PD in addition to receiving at least one prescription for antiparkinson dopaminergic therapy. Raw data was adjusted to account for sex, age, calendar year, and concomitant medication use. Propensity scores were calculated because researchers felt that baseline differences (comorbidities, concurrent medications, hospitalizations, socioeconomics, and geographic location). Logistic regression was used to determine these scores, which